J Endovasc Ther. 2022 Jan 11:15266028211067727. doi: 10.1177/15266028211067727. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of polycystic kidney embolization, performed to reduce kidney volume before heterotopic kidney transplantation, as this technique could be an alternative to pretransplant nephrectomy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent pretransplant embolization of polycystic kidneys were included in a prospective register from June 2014 to February 2020. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scan with volumetric reconstruction (OsiriX, Bernex, Switzerland) before embolization and were then followed up at 3 and 6 months after embolization. Primary outcome was percentage of kidney volume reduction. Secondary outcomes were 30 day mortality and morbidity.
RESULTS: Thirty-one embolizations performed on 29 patients (medium age = 55.6; 62.1% male) were included between June 2014 and February 2020. All patients were under dialysis before embolization (9 peritoneal dialysis and 20 hemodialysis). Technical success was observed in 96.8% of cases. Mean procedural time was 65 minutes (range = 35-106 minutes) and mean length of in-hospital stay was 3.8 days (range = 3-6 days). A volume reduction allowing a kidney transplant was obtained for 28 patients (96.5%). The mean volume reduction was 39.9% (range = 6.01-68.2). The main observed complication was postembolization pain in 10 cases (32.2%). One patient needed complementary nephrectomy due to insufficient volume reduction. Twenty-three patients (79.3%) received renal transplant during follow-up with a mean delay of 19.5 month (range = 4-54).
CONCLUSION: Polycystic kidney embolization is an effective and safe minimally invasive technique. It can be proposed as the first-choice technique for kidney transplant recipients as an alternative to pretransplantation nephrectomy.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2022 Jan;80(1):121-126. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2021.07.030. Epub 2021 Aug 10.
PURPOSE: Successful orbital reconstruction relies on an accurate restoration of orbital volume (OV). The purpose of this study was to determine if the OV of African American (AA) subjects differs from that of Caucasian subjects.
METHODS: The authors implemented a retrospective observational study of successive subjects who received a maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) scan at a level I trauma center between 2017 and 2020. The primary predictor variable was race (AA/Caucasian). The primary outcome variable was orbital volume. Two independent examiners calculated OV with an open access OsiriX MD software version 10.0.5 (Pixmeo, Switzerland). Inter-rater reliability was calculated. Differences between races, genders, and sides were tested using independent samples t test with a significance of P < .05.
RESULTS: Sixty subjects (120 orbits) were included in the study. The mean age was 36.7 (SD ± 13.2) years with a range of 22 to 78 years. Gender distribution was equal with 30 male (50%) and 30 female (50%) subjects. Inter-examiner reliability was 0.973. The mean OV of AA and Caucasians was 22.38 and 23.23 cm3, respectively (P = .07). The mean OV of AA and Caucasian males was 23.92, and 24.17cm3, respectively (P = .71). The mean OV in AA and Caucasian females was 20.84 and 22.28cm3, respectively (P = .013).
CONCLUSIONS: African-American female subjects appear to have a smaller OV when compared with Caucasians which may influence orbital reconstruction. Laterality does not appear to be associated with any differences in OV.
Associations of osteoclastogenesis and nerve growth in subchondral bone marrow lesions with clinical symptoms in knee osteoarthritis
J Orthop Translat. 2021 Dec 1;32:69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jot.2021.11.002. eCollection 2022 Jan.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs) are common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in joints affected by osteoarthritis (OA), however, their clinical impacts and mechanisms remain controversial. Thus, we aimed to investigate subchondral BMLs in knee OA patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA), then evaluate the associations of osteoclastogenesis and nerve growth in subchondral BMLs with clinical symptoms.
METHODS: Total 70 patients with primary symptomatic knee OA were involved, then separated into three groups based on MRI (without BMLs group, n = 14; BMLs without cyst group, n = 37; BMLs with cyst group, n = 19). Volume of BMLs and cyst-like lesions was calculated via the OsiriX system. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire was used to assess clinical symptoms. Histology and immunohistochemistry were deployed to assess subchondral osteoclastogenesis and nerve distribution. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the associations between volume of BMLs and joint symptoms, and to assess the associations of osteoclastogenesis and nerve growth in subchondral BMLs with joint symptoms.
RESULTS: In BMLs combined with cyst group, patients exhibited increased osteoclastogenesis and nerve distribution in subchondral bone, as shown by increased expression of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5). Volume of subchondral cyst-like component was associated with joint pain (p < 0.05). Subchondral osteoclastogenesis and nerve distribution were positively associated with joint pain in BMLs with cyst group (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The subchondral cyst-like lesion was an independent factor for inducing pain in OA patients; osteoclastogenesis and nerve growth in subchondral cyst-like lesions could account for this joint pain.
THE TRANSLATIONAL POTENTIAL OF THIS ARTICLE: Our results indicated that the increased osteoclastogenesis and nerve growth in subchondral cyst-like lesions could account for the pain of OA joints. These findings may provide valuable basis for the treatment of OA.
J Wrist Surg. 2021 May 1;10(6):523-527. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1728804. eCollection 2021 Dec.
Background A challenge to deciphering the effect of structure on function in the wrist involves difficulty in obtaining in-vivo information. To provide a platform to study wrist mechanics using in vivo acquired forces, we developed a model of the midcarpal joint based on computed tomography (CT) scans of normal wrists. Finite element analysis (FEA) can enable application of in vivo collected information to an ex vivo model. Objectives The objectives of this study are to (1) create a three-dimensional model of the midcarpal joint of the wrist based on CT scans and (2) generate separate models for the midcarpal joint based on two distinct wrist types and perform a pilot loading of the model. Methods CT scans from a normal patient database were converted to three-dimensional standard template library (STL) files using OsiriX software. Five type 1 and five type 2 wrists were used for modeling. A simulated load was applied to the carpometacarpal joints in a distal-to-proximal direction, and FEA was used to predict force transfer in the wrist. Results There were 33% type 1 and 67% type 2 wrists. The midcarpal joint dimensional measurements estimated from the model had intermediate agreement between wrist type as measured on CT scan and as predicted by the model: 56% Cohen's kappa (95% confidence interval) = 0.221 (0.05-0.5). Surface stress on the carpometacarpal joints is different in type 1 and type 2 wrists. On loading the neutral wrist, the capitolunate angle was 90 degrees in type 1 wrists and 107 degrees in type 2 wrists ( p < 0.0001). Conclusions The model predicted differences in movement and force transfer through the midcarpal joint dependent on structural type. This knowledge can improve our understanding of the development of disparate patterns of degeneration in the wrist.
Three-dimensional semi-automated volumetric assessment of the pulp space of teeth following regenerative dental procedures
Sci Rep. 2021 Nov 9;11(1):21914. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-01489-8.
The volumetric change that occurs in the pulp space over time represents a critical measure when it comes to determining the secondary outcomes of regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). However, to date, only a few studies have investigated the accuracy of the available domain-specialized medical imaging tools with regard to three-dimensional (3D) volumetric assessment. This study sought to compare the accuracy of two different artificial intelligence-based medical imaging programs namely OsiriX MD (v 9.0, Pixmeo SARL, Bernex Switzerland, https://www.osirix-viewer.com ) and 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ), in terms of estimating the volume of the pulp space following a REP. An Invitro assessment was performed to check the reliability and sensitivity of the two medical imaging programs in use. For the subsequent clinical application, pre- and post-procedure cone beam computed tomography scans of 35 immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp and periradicular pathosis that had been treated with a cell-homing concept-based REP were processed using the two biomedical DICOM software programs (OsiriX MD and 3D Slicer). The volumetric changes in the teeth's pulp spaces were assessed using semi-automated techniques in both programs. The data were statistically analyzed using t-tests and paired t-tests (P = 0.05). The pulp space volumes measured using both programs revealed a statistically significant decrease in the pulp space volume following the REP (P < 0.05), with no significant difference being found between the two programs (P > 0.05). The mean decreases in the pulp space volumes measured using OsiriX MD and 3D Slicer were 25.06% ± 19.45% and 26.10% ± 18.90%, respectively. The open-source software (3D Slicer) was found to be as accurate as the commercially available software with regard to the volumetric assessment of the post-REP pulp space. This study was the first to demonstrate the step-by-step application of 3D Slicer, a user-friendly and easily accessible open-source multiplatform software program for the segmentation and volume estimation of the pulp spaces of teeth treated with REPs.
J Craniofac Surg. 2021 Oct 1;32(7):2388-2392. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007842.
Severity of unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS) varies and can affect intracranial volume (ICV), and intracranial pressure. Correlation between ICV and severity according to Utrecht Cranial Shape Quantifier and presence of papilledema as sign of raised intracranial pressure is determined. The authors included patients with UCS (≤18 months). Intracranial volume was calculated on preoperative CT scans by manual segmentation (OsiriX [Fondation OsiriX, Geneva, Switzerland]). Calculated ICV was compared to Lichtenberg normative data for control patients. When present, papilledema was noted. Utrecht Cranial Shape Quantifier was used to quantify severity using the variables: asymmetry ratio of frontal peak and ratio of frontal peak gradient. Severity of UCS was correlated to ICV using Pearson correlation coefficient. Mean age at CT scan of patients with UCS was 7 months (1-18 months). Mean calculated ICV was 870.96 mL (617.31-1264.46 mL). All patients had ICV between ± 2 SD curves of Lichtenberg; 10 had an ICV between -1 SD and +1 SD. Majority of ICV in girls was at or larger than normative mean, in boys ICV was mostly lower than normative mean. Pearson correlation coefficient between severity of UCS and ICV was negligible (r = -0.28). Preoperative papilledema during fundoscopy was found in 4.5% (1/22; ICV 1003.88 mL; severe UCS). Therefore, severity of UCS does not correlate to ICV. Despite varying severity of UCS, ICV remains within normal ranges.
Prevalence and morphometric analysis of the retromolar canal in a Spanish population sample: a helical CT scan study
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2021 Oct 27:25069. doi: 10.4317/medoral.25069. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The retromolar canal (RMC) is an anatomical variation of the mandibular canal (MC) whose identification and study should be considered given its implication in the surgical procedures of the retromolar area. The prevalence of the RMC widely varies according to previous studies and may be influenced by the followed study method. This work aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the RMC in a Spanish population sample.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this purpose, 225 CT scan images (with a higher resolution than the cone beam CT used in other previous studies) from the Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia were analyzed. The Osirix MD® radiological image analysis system was applied to analyse the dimensions, location in the retromolar area and morphologic characteristics of the RMC by classifying them according to their typology. Furthermore, the relations between the RMC and gender, age and laterality were studied.
RESULTS: RMC prevalence was 23.1%. No significant relation between the presence of the canal and gender, age or laterality was found. Type Ia was the commonest type with a prevalence of 40.8%.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this study, the RMC should be considered a frequent anatomical variation whose complete study is very important in daily clinical practice.
Optic disc Edema in patients with fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome: Craniomorphometric analysis and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer data
Data Brief. 2021 Oct 3;39:107449. doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2021.107449. eCollection 2021 Dec.
This article reports quantitative measurements of intracranial volume, optic canal area, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) for a cohort of 124 patients with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright Syndrome (FD/MAS), previously used to determine risks for developing optic disc edema . Of these, 7 subjects were diagnosed with optic disc edema. OSIRIX imaging analysis software was used to collect intracranial volume and optic canal diameter for 107 patients, via 3D multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) of ≤5 mm axial CT slices. Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was performed with the Cirrus-HD OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA). The Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol was used for acquisition and analysis of the RNFL for 69 patients. The data can be used to assess typical ranges for intracranial volume, optic canal area, and RNFL in the craniofacial FD/MAS population and to assess ranges concerning for optic disc edema.  Raborn LN, Pan KS, FitzGibbon EJ, Collins MT, Boyce AM. Optic disc edema in fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome: Prevalence, etiologies, and clinical implications. Bone. 2021 Feb;143:115661. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2020.115661. Epub 2020 Sep 24. PMID: 32979536.
Prediction models of low-power holmium laser effectiveness in renal stone lithotripsy during retrograde intrarenal surgery
Lasers Med Sci. 2021 Oct 23. doi: 10.1007/s10103-021-03445-4. Online ahead of print.
The objectives of this study are to develop prediction models for total laser energy (TLE) in order to infer surgical time and assist operative planning of intrarenal low-power Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy, and to predict the fragmented volume as well as the stone-free status (SFS). A retrospective review was performed, comprising all single surgeon standardized retrograde intrarenal surgery and low-power Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy at a tertiary care centre between October 2014 and September 2019. Automated measurement of stone volume and stone density (MSD), measured in Hounsfield units (HU), was employed in both pre- and post-operative non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT), using a standardized technique on Osirix Lite® software. SFS was defined as complete absence of stone fragments, or fragments < 0.1 cm on meticulous inspection at the end of the procedure, and residual stone burden < 0.0005 cm3 on postoperative NCCT at 3 months. Statistical analysis was performed using the STATA® version 13.1 software for regression models. A p value < .05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 100 patients met the inclusion criteria, requiring a median of 22.3 kJ/cm3 (13.4-36.0) and resulting in a SFS of 41% at 3 months. In a multivariate analysis, according to stone composition, predicted TLE is equal: for uric acid (UA), 11.17 × volume(cm3) + 0.17 × MSD(HU) + 7.48 kJ; for mixed stones, 11.17 × volume(cm3) + 0.17 × MSD(HU) + 6.26 kJ; for calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaOM) stones, 11.17 × volume(cm3) + 0.17 × MSD(HU) + 1.14 kJ; and for calcium phosphate (CaPh) stones 11.17 × volume(cm3) + 0.17 × MSD(HU) - 1.94 kJ. Predicted fragmented volume is equal to 0.93 × volume(cm3) cm3. The significant predictors for SFS were UA stones, the presence of multiple stones, and lower TLE. In clinical practice, our models for intrarenal low-power Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy indicate that larger, denser, and UA stones are associated to higher TLE, and that single and UA stones are more commonly associated to SFS. Since higher TLE means longer operative time, when adjusting for laser parameters, our prediction models may help urologists plan surgeries more precisely based on stone characteristics, ultimately optimizing patients' treatment.
Repeatability and reproducibility of deep-learning-based liver volume and Couinaud segment volume measurement tool
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2021 Oct 4. doi: 10.1007/s00261-021-03262-x. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: Volumetric and health assessment of the liver is crucial to avoid poor post-operative outcomes following liver resection surgery. No current methods allow for concurrent and accurate measurement of both Couinaud segmental volumes for future liver remnant estimation and liver health using non-invasive imaging. In this study, we demonstrate the accuracy and precision of segmental volume measurements using new medical software, Hepatica™.
METHODS: MRI scans from 48 volunteers from three previous studies were used in this analysis. Measurements obtained from Hepatica™ were compared with OsiriX. Time required per case with each software was also compared. The performance of technicians and experienced radiologists as well as the repeatability and reproducibility were compared using Bland-Altman plots and limits of agreement.
RESULTS: High levels of agreement and lower inter-operator variability for liver volume measurements were shown between Hepatica™ and existing methods for liver volumetry (mean Dice score 0.947 ± 0.010). A high consistency between technicians and experienced radiologists using the device for volumetry was shown (± 3.5% of total liver volume) as well as low inter-observer and intra-observer variability. Tight limits of agreement were shown between repeated Couinaud segment volume (+ 3.4% of whole liver), segmental liver fibroinflammation and segmental liver fat measurements in the same participant on the same scanner and between different scanners. An underestimation of whole-liver volume was observed between three non-reference scanners.
CONCLUSION: Hepatica™ produces accurate and precise whole-liver and Couinaud segment volume and liver tissue characteristic measurements. Measurements are consistent between trained technicians and experienced radiologists.