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Sex estimation in the cranium and mandible: a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) study using anthropometric and geometric morphometry methods.

sab, 01/04/2020 - 10:33
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Sex estimation in the cranium and mandible: a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) study using anthropometric and geometric morphometry methods.

Int J Legal Med. 2020 Jan 02;:

Authors: Gillet C, Costa-Mendes L, Rérolle C, Telmon N, Maret D, Savall F

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyze the respective contribution of the skull and mandible to sex estimation in an entire cranium using metric and geometric morphometric methods and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) analysis.
MATERIALS: The study sample comprised 120 individuals aged 23 to 84 years and divided into three groups (whole sample and over or under 40 years of age).
METHODS: Forty-eight osteometric landmarks were positioned using Osirix®, 34 for the cranium and 14 for the mandible. The data were analyzed using univariate analyses and logistic regression using backward stepwise selection with cross-validation of the classification results. Generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) was used, and Goodall's F test and Mahalanobis D2 matrices allowed an assessment of statistical significance.
RESULTS: The classification accuracy of cranium models ranged from 87% to 88.3%, and from 68% to 81.4% for the mandibular models. With geometric morphometry, accuracy was of 94-100% for the cranium and 84.2% for the mandible.
DISCUSSION: We conclude that the mandible had a higher accuracy rate for individuals over 40 years than individuals under 40 years of age, although the accuracy of geometric morphometry did not differ significantly between the age groups. The cranium, however, presented greater predictability for all the parameters assessed.

PMID: 31897666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Does 3D volumetric analysis predict the reach of endoscopically harvested buccal fat pad flap.

sex, 12/27/2019 - 09:23
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Does 3D volumetric analysis predict the reach of endoscopically harvested buccal fat pad flap.

Laryngoscope. 2019 Dec 26;:

Authors: Subramaniam S, Gomez M, Maza G, Prevedello DM, Carrau RL

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the volume of buccal fat, ascertained by computed tomography (CT) scanning, would correspond to surface area and reach (length and width) of the flap intraoperatively to aid in the reconstruction of selected skull base defects.
METHODS: Cadaveric study of five specimens, 10 sides. Methods CT imaging and evaluation using the Osirix 9 software (Pixmeo; Bernex, Switzerland). of cadaveric heads to calculate the volume of the buccal fat bilaterally. The flap was then harvested endoscopically. Measurements were taken. Two heads were also dissected via a transfacial approach.
RESULTS: The volume of the buccal fat pad (BFP) as well as the maximum length and width of the endoscopically harvested flap were documented. There was a positive correlation shown between the calculated volume of the BFP based on CT imaging and the dissected length and width of the flap (Pearson correlation, r = 0.83 and r = 0.80, respectively). The transfacial dissection demonstrated the lobes of the BFP well, showing that most of the endoscopic mobilization of the BFP was limited to the posterior lobe, in particular to the temporalis and pterygoid components, with minimal displacement of the superficial components. This minimized the risk of visibly hollowing the buccal fullness.
CONCLUSION: Preoperative calculation of the CT-based volume of the BFP correlates positively with the intraoperative maximum reach of the flap for both length and width. Whereas the volume may be lower in some instances, the BFP would still have adequate reach to provide coverage for the lower and mid-clival region in most patients.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 2019.

PMID: 31876287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Post-traumatic enophthalmos secondary to orbital fat atrophy: a volumetric analysis.

sex, 11/15/2019 - 09:08

Post-traumatic enophthalmos secondary to orbital fat atrophy: a volumetric analysis.

Orbit. 2019 Nov 14;:1-6

Authors: Cohen LM, Habib LA, Yoon MK

Abstract
Purpose: To investigate via volumetric analysis whether orbital fat atrophy occurs in late post-traumatic enophthalmos.Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective cohort study identified patients with diagnoses of both orbital fracture and enophthalmos with a CT orbits >3 months after injury. Exclusion criteria were surgical repair, other orbital disease or surgery, adjacent sinus disease, and an abnormal contralateral orbit. Images were analyzed using OsiriX imaging software (v.9.0.2, Pixmeo, Switzerland). Total orbital volume and orbital fat volume for the fractured and normal contralateral orbits were measured via three-dimensional volume rendering assisted region-of-interest computation. Enophthalmos was measured radiographically. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare orbital fat and total orbital volumes between the fractured and normal contralateral orbits.Results: Thirteen patients met the inclusion criteria. The numbers of patients with each fracture pattern were floor (4), medial wall (4), floor/medial wall (3), zygomaticomaxillary complex (floor+lateral wall) (1), zygomaticomaxillary complex+medial (inferior/medial/lateral walls) (1). Mean time from injury to CT scan was 21.8 ± 16.3 months. Comparing the fractured and normal contralateral orbits, there was a statistically significant decrease in orbital fat volume (mean difference 0.9 ml (14.2%), p = .0002) and increase in total orbital volume (mean difference 2.0 ml (7.0%), p = .0001). One ml orbital volume change was responsible for 0.83 mm enophthalmos.Conclusions: In addition to an increase in total orbital volume, orbital fat loss occurs with late post-traumatic enophthalmos due to unrepaired fractures. This suggests correction of bony change alone may be insufficient in some cases, and the use of custom implants may compensate for fat atrophy.

PMID: 31726012 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Imaging and histomorphometric evaluation of mandible and tibia of rats treated with bisphosphonates.

qui, 11/07/2019 - 17:02
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Imaging and histomorphometric evaluation of mandible and tibia of rats treated with bisphosphonates.

Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Nov 04;:

Authors: Martelli SJR, Damian MF, Schinestsck AR, Schuch LF, Cascaes AM, Vasconcelos ACU

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the mandible and tibia of rats treated with bisphosphonates (BPs) by imaging and histomorphometric analysis.
STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-four rat specimens (Rattus norvegicus, Wistar strain) were distributed into 3 groups: (1) 12 rats treated with zoledronic acid; (2) 12 rats treated with clodronate; and (3) the control group, containing 10 rats that received saline. All bones were exposed to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The images were analyzed to determine bone density (BD), using the software OsiriX 7.0. Histological slides were prepared from the specimens and the proportion of bone volume (BV) was quantified using the software Adobe Photoshop CC.
RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in BD either between the drug groups or between mandible and tibia. BV between BPs and control group did not show a significant difference. However, comparing the two bones, the mandibles in the control group displayed higher BV than did the tibiae in the same group.
CONCLUSION: According to our results, we conclude that (1) BD was not altered by bone type or by type of BP administered, and (2) treatment with zoledronic acid or clodronate did not affect BV in the mandible or tibia of test groups.

PMID: 31686251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Olfactory cleft and sinus opacification differentially impact olfaction in chronic rhinosinusitis.

sab, 10/12/2019 - 09:54
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Olfactory cleft and sinus opacification differentially impact olfaction in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Laryngoscope. 2019 Oct 11;:

Authors: Loftus C, Schlosser RJ, Smith TL, Alt JA, Ramakrishnan VR, Mattos JL, Mappus E, Storck K, Yoo F, Soler ZM

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Prior studies have indicated that olfactory cleft (OC) opacification correlates with olfaction in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, the results have been unclear in patients without polyps. The purpose of this study was to further explore the relationship between OC opacification, sinus opacification, and olfactory function in patients with CRS.
METHODS: One hundred and forty-eight patients with CRS were prospectively enrolled across five institutions. Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks tests (Burghardt, Wedel, Germany) and the 17-item Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD-NS). Computed tomography (CT) scans for each patient were acquired and Lund-Mackay scores recorded. Opacification of the OC was determined using OsiriX MD (Pixmeo, Bernex, Switzerland) and correlated with olfaction scores.
RESULTS: A total of 148 CRS patients, 73 CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and 75 CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), as well as 30 control subjects were enrolled. Overall OC opacification averaged 63.7% in CRS patients and 47.1% in control subjects (P < 0.001). In the overall cohort, OC opacification significantly correlated with threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) (r = -0.520; P < 0.001) and QOD-NS scores (r = 0.374; P < 0.001). CRSwNP patients demonstrated a significant correlation between OC opacification and TDI scores (r = -0.464; P < 0.001) but not the CRSsNP group (r = -0.143; P = 0.229). Lund-Mackay score correlated with TDI in both the CRSsNP (r = -0.300; P = 0.010) and CRSwNP (r = -0.271; P = 0.019) groups.
CONCLUSION: CT opacification is associated with olfactory dysfunction differentially based on nasal polyp status. Smell loss in CRSwNP correlated with both OC opacification and Lund-Mackay score, whereas CRSsNP correlated only with Lund-Mackay score, indicating different relationships between olfactory function and local inflammatory processes in these disorders.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Laryngoscope, 2019.

PMID: 31603563 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]